Late-onset riboflavin transporter deficiency: a treatable mimic of various motor neuropathy aetiologies.

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Riboflavin transporter deficiencies (RTDs), involving SLC52A3 and SLC52A2 genes, have recently been related to Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere (BVVL) syndrome, a hereditary paediatric condition associating motor neuropathy (MN) and deafness. BVVL/RTD has rarely been reported in adult patients, but is probably underdiagnosed due to poor knowledge and lack of awareness of this form of disease among neurologists. In this study, we aimed to investigate the phenotype and prognosis of RTD patients with late-onset MN.We retrospectively collected clinical, biological and electrophysiological data from all French RTD patients with MN onset after 10 years of age (n=6) and extracted data from 19 other similar RTD patients from the literature.Adult RTD patients with MN had heterogeneous clinical presentations, potentially mimicking amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or distal hereditary motor neuropathy (56%), multinevritis with cranial nerve involvement (16%), Guillain-Barré syndrome (8%) and mixed motor and sensory neuronopathy syndromes (20%, only in SLC52A2 patients). Deafness was often diagnosed before MN (in 44%), but in some patients, onset began only with MN (16%). The pattern of weakness varied widely, and the classic pontobulbar palsy described in BVVL was not constant. Biochemical tests were often normal. The majority of patients improved under riboflavin supplementation (86%).Whereas late-onset RTD may mimic different acquired or genetic causes of motor neuropathies, it is a diagnosis not to be missed since high-dose riboflavin per oral supplementation is often highly efficient.

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