Interleukin-23 drives expansion of Thelper 17 cells through epigenetic regulation by signal transducer and activators of transcription 3 in lupus patients.

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To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenic Th17 cells, we investigated the modulation of epigenetic modifications and its association with SLE.Naive CD4+ T cells were cultured in Th17 polarizing conditions for 5 days and then treated with various cytokines, including IL-23. Expression of Th17 cell-related markers and phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (pSTATs) were analysed using flow cytometry and quantitative PCR. Histone modifications were assessed using chromatin immunoprecipitation PCR. T cell phenotypes and pSTATs were analysed in blood samples of patients with SLE (n = 28). Finally, the effects of baricitinib on memory Th17 cells were investigated in SLE patients (n = 12).Stimulation of resting Th17 cells with IL-23 promoted maturation of these cells (P 

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