Recurrent attacks of peritonitis of Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), may lead to peritoneal adhesions and fallopian tube obstruction. Colchicine - the treatment of choice for FMF - may disturb cell division. Secondary amyloidosis - a complication of untreated FMF - may involve the testes and ovaries. Thus, FMF and colchicine may potentially affect fertility and pregnancy in FMF patients. The aims of the study are to evaluate the causes of infertility and pregnancy outcome in FMF patients and to compare them with two groups: non-FMF patients with peritoneal female genital tuberculosis (FGTB) and normal healthy control.This is a retrospective study in which FMF patients with reproductive disorders were recruited from the National Center of Medical Genetics and Primary Health Care in Yerevan, Armenia. The FGTB patients and the normal control patients with reproductive problems were recruited successively from a large gynecology clinic in Yerevan. Genetic analyses for FMF were performed using ViennaLab Diagnostics GmbH Strip Assay.The FMF group (211 patients) resembles the FGTB group (127 patients) regarding etiologies of infertility. However, in vitro fertilization (IVF) success rate and pregnancy outcome were comparable between the FMF patients and the control group (167patients). Infertility in FMF patients was clearly associated with a more severe disease and a lack of adequate colchicine treatment.Colchicine medication and controlled FMF disease do not adversely affect the reproductive system and pregnancy outcome. However, a lack of an appropriate colchicine treatment may cause infertility and poor pregnancy outcome.