Diabetes is an important risk factor for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but little is known about the marginal effect of additional risk factors for severe COVID-19 among individuals with diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that sociodemographic, access to health care, and presentation to care characteristics among individuals with diabetes in Mexico confer an additional risk of hospitalization with COVID-19.We conducted a cross-sectional study using public data from the General Directorate of Epidemiology of the Mexican Ministry of Health. We included individuals with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 between 1 March and 31 July 2020. The primary outcome was the predicted probability of hospitalization, inclusive of 8.5% of patients who required intensive care unit admission.Among 373,963 adults with COVID-19, 16.1% (95% CI 16.0-16.3) self-reported diabetes. The predicted probability of hospitalization was 38.4% (37.6-39.2) for patients with diabetes only and 42.9% (42.2-43.7) for patients with diabetes and one or more comorbidities (obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease). High municipality-level of social deprivation and low state-level health care resources were associated with a 9.5% (6.3-12.7) and 17.5% (14.5-20.4) increased probability of hospitalization among patients with diabetes, respectively. In age-, sex-, and comorbidity-adjusted models, living in a context of high social vulnerability and low health care resources was associated with the highest predicted probability of hospitalization.Social vulnerability contributes considerably to the probability of hospitalization among individuals with COVID-19 and diabetes with associated comorbidities. These findings can inform mitigation strategies for populations at the highest risk of severe COVID-19.