Antihypertensive drugs (AHTs) are associated with lowered risks of neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. However, the relative risks associated with different AHT classes are unclear. Using an electronic health record network with 34 million eligible patients, we compared rates of these disorders over a 2-year period, in propensity score-matched cohorts of people taking calcium channel blockers (CCBs) compared with those taking other AHT classes. CCBs were associated with a higher incidence of all disorders compared with renin-angiotensin system agents, and a higher incidence of dementia and cerebrovascular disease compared with diuretics. CCBs were associated with a lower incidence of movement disorders and cerebrovascular disease compared with beta-blockers. The data show that AHT classes confer differential risks of neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diagnoses.