Ultrahigh resolution (UHR) HLA matching is reported to result in better outcomes following unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation, improving survival and reducing post-transplant complications. However, most studies included relatively small numbers of patients. Here we report the findings from a large, multicenter validation study.UHR HLA typing was available on 5,140 conventionally 10 out of 10 HLA-matched patients with malignant disease transplanted between 2008 and 2017.After UHR HLA typing, 82% of pairs remained 10 out of 10 UHR-matched; 12.3% of patients were 12 out of 12 UHR HLA-matched. Compared with 12 out of 12 UHR-matched patients, probabilities of grade 2-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) were significantly increased with UHR mismatches (overall P = .0019) and in those patients who were HLA-DPB1 T-cell epitope permissively mismatched or nonpermissively mismatched (overall P = .0011). In the T-cell-depleted subset, the degree of UHR HLA mismatch was only associated with increased transplant-related mortality (TRM) (overall P = .0068). In the T-cell-replete subset, UHR HLA matching was associated with a lower probability of aGVHD (overall P = .0020); 12 out of 12 UHR matching was associated with reduced TRM risk when compared with HLA-DPB1 T-cell epitope permissively mismatched patients, whereas nonpermissive mismatching resulted in a greater risk (overall P = .0003).This study did not confirm that UHR 12 out of 12 HLA matching increases the probability of overall survival but does demonstrate that aGVHD risk, and in certain settings TRM, is lowest in UHR HLA-matched pairs and thus warrants consideration when multiple 10 out of 10 HLA-matched donors of equivalent age are available.
Neema P Mayor, Tao Wang, Stephanie J Lee, Michelle Kuxhausen, Cynthia Vierra-Green, Dominic J Barker, Jeffrey Auletta, Vijaya R Bhatt, Shahinaz M Gadalla, Loren Gragert, Yoshihiro Inamoto, Gerald P Morris, Sophie Paczesny, Ran Reshef, Olle Ringdén, Bronwen E Shaw, Peter Shaw, Stephen R Spellman, Steven G E Marsh