Immunotherapy in cholangiocarcinoma.

Cholangiocarcinoma is an aggressive heterogeneous group of cancers of the biliary epithelium and most patients are detected with advanced metastatic disease with poor prognosis. The therapeutic options are limited, and the current standard care as systemic therapy is still cytotoxic chemotherapy. With the understanding of the complex immune microenvironment in the liver and these cancers arising in the milieu of chronic inflammation, recent advances in immune oncology have transformed the landscape of cancer management with breakthroughs in the treatment of several solid tumors.With the advances of genome sequencing, subgroups of cholangiocarcinoma with hyper mutated status and rich in cancer neoantigen production may be susceptible to immunotherapies like cancer vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors by eliciting a host immune response resulting in tumor rejection or overcoming the immunosuppressive local tumor microenvironment.In this review, we look at the most recent evidence behind immunotherapy and its application in the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma. Though its utility is still in early development it shows great promise in improving response rates that may translate to durable disease control and improve clinical outcomes in this aggressive disease.

View the full article @ Current opinion in gastroenterology

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