The pathogenesis of nephrolithiasis in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) remains to be elucidated. The latest guidelines suggest parathyroidectomy in patients with asymptomatic PHPT with hypercalciuria (>400 mg/day) and increased stone risk profile.To evaluate the association of urinary stone risk factors in patients with asymptomatic sporadic PHPT and its clinical relevance.One-hundred fifty-seven consecutive patients with sporadic asymptomatic PHPT were evaluated by measurement of serum and 24-h urinary parameters and kidney ultrasound.Urinary parameters were tested in the univariate analysis as continuous and categorical variables. Only hypercalciuria and hypomagnesuria were significantly associated with nephrolithiasis in the univariate and multivariate analysis, adjusted for age, sex, BMI, eGFR, PTH, 25OHD, serum calcium, urine volume [OR 2.14 (1.10-4.56); P=0.04; OR 3.06 (1.26-7.43); P=0.013, respectively]. Hypomagnesuria remained associated with nephrolithiasis in the multivariate analysis [OR 6.09 (1.57-23.5), P=0.009], even when the analysis was limited to patients without concomitant hypercalciuria. The urinary calcium/magnesium ratio was also associated with nephrolithiasis (univariate OR 1.62 (1.27-2.08); P=0.001 and multivariate analyses: OR 1.74 (1.25-2.42), P=0.001). Hypomagnesuria and urinary calcium/magnesium ratio had a better, but rather low, positive predictive value (PPV) compared with hypercalciuria.Hypomagnesuria, and urinary calcium/magnesium ratio are each associated with silent nephrolithiasis and have potential clinical utility as risk factors, besides hypercalciuria, for kidney stones in asymptomatic PHPT. The other urinary indices that have been commonly thought to be associated with kidney stones in PHPT are not supported by our results.