How I Treat Relapsed or Refractory AML.

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Treatment of relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has presented challenges for hematologists for decades. Despite numerous clinical studies, outcomes are consistently disappointing with 5-year overall survival rates of approximately 10%. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation at the time of second complete remission remains the only reliable option with curative potential. However, recent approval of several new agents has transformed treatment paradigms in AML that had been in place for almost half a century. This new therapeutic landscape provides the opportunity to revisit the approach to relapsed or refractory AML. Through illustrative cases we describe our approach, which increasingly relies on specific disease biology. We focus on treatment outside the context of clinical trials since such trials are not available in most parts of the world. Primarily we consider age, fitness to tolerate intensive chemotherapy, remission duration, and presence of a targetable mutation to guide treatment. It is inevitable that the coming years will bring new targets and agents which may prove most effective when combined with each other and/or chemotherapy. Future studies are needed to determine how best to implement this evolving armamentarium of treatment options, to elucidate mechanisms of resistance, and to continue to pursue novel drug discovery.

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