Acute lung injury (ALI) is a fatal but undertreated condition with severe neutrophilic inflammation, while little is known about the functions of eosinophils in pathogenesis of ALI.To investigate the roles and molecular mechanisms of eosinophils in ALI.Pulmonary eosinophils were identified by flow cytometry. Mice with abundant or deficient eosinophils were used. Cellularity of eosinophils and neutrophils in BALF, inflammatory assessment, and survival rate were detected. Human samples were also used for validating experimental results.Blood eosinophils were increased in survived individuals of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome independent of the corticosteroid usage. There existed homeostatic eosinophils in lung parenchyma in mice, and these homeostatic eosinophils in originating from the bone marrow were predominantly CD101-. More CD101- eosinophils could be recruited earlier than lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-initiated neutrophilic inflammation. Loss of eosinophils augmented LPS-induced pulmonary injury. Homeostatic CD101- eosinophils ameliorated, while allergic CD101+ eosinophils exacerbated, the neutrophilic inflammation induced by LPS. Likewise, CD101 expression in eosinophils from ARDS patients did not differ from the healthy subjects. Mechanistically, CD101- eosinophils exhibited higher levels of Alox15 and Protectin D1. Administration of Protectin D1 isomer attenuated the neutrophilic inflammation.Collectively, our findings identify an uncovered function of native CD101- eosinophils in suppressing neutrophilic lung inflammation and suggest a potential therapeutic target for ALI.