Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an important risk factor for the progression of metabolic liver disease to advanced fibrosis. Here, we provide an estimate of the prevalence of steatosis and fibrosis in U.S. adults with T2DM on the basis of transient elastography (TE) and identify factors associated with these conditions.This is a cross-sectional study of U.S. adults with T2DM participating in the 2017-2018 cycle of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who were evaluated by TE. Hepatic steatosis and fibrosis were diagnosed by the median value of controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and liver stiffness measurement (LSM), respectively.Among the 825 patients with reliable TE examination results, 484 (53.7%) were assessed using the M probe and 341 (46.3%) using the XL probe. Liver steatosis (CAP ≥274 dB/m), advanced fibrosis (LSM ≥9.7 kPa), and cirrhosis (LSM ≥13.6 kPa) were present in 73.8% (95% CI 68.5%-78.5%), 15.4% (95% CI 12.2%-19.0%), and 7.7% (95% CI 4.8%-11.9%) of patients, respectively. The mean ± SE age of patients with advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis was 63.7 ± 2.2 years and 57.8 ± 1.6 years, respectively. In the multivariable logistic regression model, BMI, non-Black race, and ALT levels were independent predictors of steatosis; and BMI, non-Black race, and AST and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase levels were independent predictors of advanced fibrosis.Prevalence of both liver steatosis and fibrosis is high in patients with T2DM from the United States and obesity is a major risk factor. Our results support the screening of these conditions among patients with diabetes.