HHEX promotes myeloid transformation in cooperation with mutant ASXL1.

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Additional sex combs-like 1 (ASXL1), an epigenetic modulator, is frequently mutated in myeloid neoplasms. Recent analyses of mutant ASXL1 conditional knock-in (ASXL1-MT-KI) mice suggested that ASXL1-MT alone is insufficient for myeloid transformation. In our previous study, we utilized retrovirus-mediated insertional mutagenesis, which exhibited susceptibility of ASXL1-MT-KI hematopoietic cells to transform into myeloid leukemia cells. In this screening, we identified Hematopoietically expressed homeobox (HHEX) gene as one of the common retrovirus integration sites. In this study, we investigated the potential cooperation between ASXL1-MT and HHEX in myeloid leukemogenesis. Expression of HHEX enhanced proliferation of ASXL1-MT expressing HSPCs by inhibiting apoptosis and blocking differentiation, whereas it showed only modest effect in normal HSPCs. Moreover, ASXL1-MT and HHEX accelerated the development of RUNX1-ETO9a and FLT3-ITD leukemia. Conversely, HHEX depletion profoundly attenuated the colony-forming activity and leukemogenicity of ASXL1-MT-expressing leukemia cells. Mechanistically, we identified MYB and ETV5 as downstream targets for ASXL1-MT and HHEX by using transcriptome and ChIP-seq analyses. Moreover, we found that expression of ASXL1-MT enhanced the binding of HHEX to the promoter loci of MYB or ETV5 via reducing H2AK119ub. Depletion of MYB or ETV5 induced apoptosis or differentiation in ASXL1-MT-expressing leukemia cells, respectively. In addition, ectopic expression of MYB or ETV5 reversed the reduced colony-forming activity of HHEX-depleted ASXL1-MT-expressing leukemia cells. These findings indicated that the HHEX-MYB/ETV5 axis promotes myeloid transformation in ASXL1-mutated preleukemia cells.

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