Taller individuals are at higher risk of melanoma.To prospectively investigate the association of height with nevus count and melanoma and estimate the proportion of height-melanoma association explained by nevus count among Caucasian participants from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHS2.We used Cox proportional hazards regression and multinomial logistic regression for data analyses with adjustment of potential confounders in the multivariate model.We included 82,468 and 106,069 women from the NHS and NHS2, respectively. The hazard ratio was 1.21 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12, 1.31] for the association between every 10-cm increase in height and melanoma. Compared to women with no nevi, the odds ratios (95% CIs) associated with 10-cm increase in height were 1.35 (1.23, 1.48) in the NHS and 1.12 (1.09, 1.15) in the NHS2 for women with 10+ moles. The proportion of excess melanoma risk associated with per 10-cm increase in height explained by nevus count was 8.03% in the NHS and 10.22% in the NHS2.Self-reported height and nevus count. Mole counts were limited to one arm or both legs.Nevus count is an important explanatory factor for the excess risk of melanoma among taller Caucasians women.