HDL particle size is increased and HDL-cholesterol efflux is enhanced in type 1 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

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The prevalence of atherosclerosis is increased in type 1 diabetes despite normal-to-high HDL-cholesterol levels. The cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) of HDL is a better predictor of cardiovascular events than static HDL-cholesterol. This cross-sectional study addressed the hypothesis that impaired HDL function contributes to enhanced CVD risk within type 1 diabetes.We compared HDL particle size and concentration (by NMR), total CEC, ATP-binding cassette subfamily A, member 1 (ABCA1)-dependent CEC and ABCA1-independent CEC (by determining [3H]cholesterol efflux from J774-macrophages to ApoB-depleted serum), and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in 100 individuals with type 1 diabetes (37.6 ± 1.2 years; BMI 26.9 ± 0.5 kg/m2) and 100 non-diabetic participants (37.7 ± 1.1 years; 27.1 ± 0.5 kg/m2).Compared with non-diabetic participants, total HDL particle concentration was lower (mean ± SD 31.01 ± 8.66 vs 34.33 ± 8.04 μmol/l [mean difference (MD) -3.32 μmol/l]) in participants with type 1 diabetes. However, large HDL particle concentration was greater (9.36 ± 3.98 vs 6.99 ± 4.05 μmol/l [MD +2.37 μmol/l]), resulting in increased mean HDL particle size (9.82 ± 0.57 vs 9.44 ± 0.56 nm [MD +0.38 nm]) (p 


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