Haematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Chronic Granulomatous Disease: a Study on 712 Children and Adults.

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Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency resulting in life-threatening infections and inflammatory complications. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) can cure patients, but indication to transplant remains controversial. We performed a retrospective multicentre study on 712 patients with CGD undergoing allo-HCT transplanted in EBMT centres between 1993 and 2018. We studied 635 children (aged < 18 years) and 77 adults. Median follow-up was 45 months. Median age at transplant was 7 years (range: 0.1-48.6). Kaplan-Meier estimates of OS and EFS at 3 years were 85.7% (95% CI, 82.8-88.5) and 75.8% (95% CI, 72.3-79.3), respectively. On MVA, older age was associated with reduced survival (HR= 1.69, p= 0.0001) and increased chronic GVHD (HR 1.35, p=0.01). Nevertheless OS and EFS at 3 years for patients ≥ 18 years was 76% (95%CI, 66-86) and 69% (95%CI, 57-80), respectively. Use of one antigen-mismatched donors was associated with reduced OS (HR= 2.29, p= 0.01) and EFS (HR 2.37, p=0.001). No significant difference was found in OS, but a significantly reduced EFS (HR 3.69 p=0.001), in the small group who received a transplant from a donor with more than one antigen-mismatch. Choice of conditioning regimen did not influence OS or EFS. In conclusion we report an excellent outcome after allo-HCT in CGD, with low incidence of graft failure and mortality in all ages. Older patients and recipients of one antigen-mismatched grafts have a less favourable outcome. Transplant should be strongly considered at a younger age and particularly in the presence of a well-matched donor.

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