Gluten neuropathy: electrophysiological progression and HLA associations.

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Gluten neuropathy (GN) is the term used to describe peripheral neuropathy that occurs in patients with gluten sensitivity (GS) or coeliac disease (CD) in the absence of other risk factors. We aimed to describe the neurophysiological progression rate of GN across time and look into the potential role of genetic susceptibility in its development.This is a cohort study of 45 patients with GN with a mean follow-up period of 8 ± 5 years. The assessments included clinical and neurophysiological data and HLA-DQ genotyping.The mean age at diagnosis was 60 ± 12 years. The majority of patients had a length-dependent neuropathy (75.6%), whereas the rest were diagnosed with sensory ganglionopathy (SG). DQA1*02-positive patients were more likely to suffer with SG compared to the DQA1*02 negative patients (60% versus 13.8%, p = 0.009). There was also a trend for statistical significance regarding the DQB1*06 allele and the DQA1*01/DQB1*06 haplotype were found more frequently in patients with GN than in healthy controls (p = 0.026 and p = 0.047, respectively). A linear effect of time on the neurophysiological findings was found in radial sensory nerve action potential (1.9% mean annual decrement, p = 0.036), sural sensory nerve action potential (3.3% mean annual decrement, p = 0.013) and tibial nerve motor compound action potential (6.5% mean annual decrement, p 

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