While existing evidence supports beneficial cardiovascular effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), emerging studies suggest that glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and/or signaling via the GIP receptor may have untoward cardiovascular effects. Indeed, recent studies show that fasting physiological GIP levels are associated with total mortality and cardiovascular mortality, and it was suggested that GIP plays a role in pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. We investigated the associations between fasting and postchallenge GIP and GLP-1 concentrations and subclinical atherosclerosis as measured by mean intima-media thickness in the common carotid artery (IMTmeanCCA) and maximal intima-media thickness in the carotid bifurcation (IMTmaxBulb).Participants at reexamination within the Malmö Diet and Cancer-Cardiovascular Cohort study (n = 3,734, mean age 72.5 years, 59.3% women, 10.8% subjects with diabetes, fasting GIP available for 3,342 subjects, fasting GLP-1 available for 3,299 subjects) underwent oral glucose tolerance testing and carotid ultrasound.In linear regression analyses, each 1-SD increment of fasting GIP was associated with increased (per mm) IMTmeanCCA (β = 0.010, P = 0.010) and IMTmaxBulb (β = 0.014; P = 0.040) in models adjusted for known risk factors and glucose metabolism. In contrast, each 1-SD increment of fasting GLP-1 was associated with decreased IMTmaxBulb (per mm, β = -0.016, P = 0.014). These associations remained significant when subjects with diabetes were excluded from analyses.In a Swedish elderly population, physiologically elevated levels of fasting GIP are associated with increased IMTmeanCCA, while GLP-1 is associated with decreased IMTmaxBulb, further emphasizing diverging cardiovascular effects of these two incretin hormones.