We investigated the impact of the CD33-targeted agent gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) on survival in pediatric patients with KMT2A-rearranged (KMT2A-r) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) enrolled in the Children's Oncology Group trial AAML0531 (NCT01407757).Patients with KMT2A-r AML were identified and clinical characteristics described. Five-year overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and relapse risk (RR) were determined overall and for higher-risk versus not high-risk translocation partners. GO's impact on response was determined and outcomes based on consolidation approach (hematopoietic stem cell transplant [HSCT] v chemotherapy) described.Two hundred fifteen (21%) of 1,022 patients enrolled had KMT2A-r AML. Five-year EFS and OS from study entry were 38% and 58%, respectively. EFS was superior with GO treatment (EFS 48% with GO v 29% without, P = .003), although OS was comparable (63% v 53%, P = .054). For patients with KMT2A-r AML who achieved complete remission, GO was associated with lower RR (40% GO v 66% patients who did not receive GO [No-GO], P = .001) and improved 5-year DFS (GO 57% v No-GO 33%, P = .002). GO benefit was observed in both higher-risk and not high-risk KMT2A-r subsets. For patients who underwent HSCT, prior GO exposure was associated with decreased relapse (5-year RR: 28% GO and HSCT v 73% No-GO and HSCT, P = .006). In multivariable analysis, GO was independently associated with improved EFS, improved DFS, and reduced RR.GO added to conventional chemotherapy improved outcomes for KMT2A-r AML; consolidation with HSCT may further enhance outcomes. Future clinical trials should study CD33-targeted agents in combination with HSCT for pediatric KMT2A-r AML.
Jessica A Pollard, Erin Guest, Todd A Alonzo, Robert B Gerbing, Mike R Loken, Lisa Eidenschink Brodersen, E Anders Kolb, Richard Aplenc, Soheil Meshinchi, Susana C Raimondi, Betsy Hirsch, Alan S Gamis