Gastrointestinal symptoms and gut dysbiosis may occur before the onset of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). Prediagnostic and prodromal features, such as constipation and α-synuclein pathology, can be detected several years before the clinical diagnosis of PD and have the potential to develop as early PD biomarkers. Environmental toxins and gut dysbiosis may trigger oxidative stress and mucosal inflammation, and initiate α-synuclein accumulation in the enteric nervous system, early in PD. Chronic gut inflammation can lead to a leaky gut and systemic inflammation, neuro inflammation, and neuro degeneration via gut-vagus-brain signaling or through blood-brain barrier permeability. Concepts regarding the gut-brain signaling in PD pathogenesis are changing rapidly and more investigation is required. The gut microbiota interacts with the human body by modulating the enteric and central nervous systems, and immune activity. Understanding the immune responses between gut microbiota and human body might help in elucidating the PD pathogenesis. As changes in gut microbiota composition might be associated with different clinical phenotypes of PD, gut microbiota-modulating interventions, such as probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), have the potential to restore the gut dysbiosis, reduce inflammation, and possibly modulate the clinical PD phenotype.
Vinod Metta, Valentina Leta, Kandadai Rukmini Mrudula, L K Prashanth, Vinay Goyal, Rupam Borgohain, Guy Chung-Faye, K Ray Chaudhuri