Functional positional eye and eyelid movements.

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Positional manoeuvres are an important part of the neurological examination, particularly in patients with vertigo where the presence and characteristics of provoked nystagmus can help differentiate central from peripheral neurological disorders.Case series of functional positional eye and eyelid movements.We report four patients with functional eye and eyelid movements provoked during positional manoeuvres. The range of abnormalities observed included positional convergence spasm, brief functional saccadic oscillations, and excessive positional blinking mimicking upbeat nystagmus. The functional movements described were present on a background of pre-existing peripheral or central nystagmus, or positional vertigo.Functional positional eye and eyelid movements may co-exist with organic nystagmus that renders an accurate interpretation of the manoeuvre more challenging. A thorough understanding of the clinical features that differentiate these two categories of eye/eyelid movements makes the analysis easier, thus preventing misdiagnosis and avoiding unnecessary investigations.


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