First-Line Carboplatin Plus Pemetrexed with Pemetrexed Maintenance in HIV+ Patients with Advanced Non-Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: The Phase II IFCT-1001 CHIVA Trial.

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HIV infection is an exclusion criterion in lung cancer trials. This multicenter phase II trial aimed to assess feasibility, efficacy and safety of first-line carboplatin plus pemetrexed (CaP) followed by pemetrexed (P) maintenance in people living with HIV (PLHIV) with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NS-NSCLC).Four cycles of CaP were followed by P-maintenance therapy in patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS) ≤2. The primary objective was a disease control rate (DCR) ≥30% after 12 weeks.Of the 61 PLHIV enrolled 49 (80%) had a PS 0-1, 19 (31%) brain metastases. Median CD4 lymphocyte count was 418 cells·µL-1 (range: 18-1230), median CD4 lymphocyte nadir 169.5 cells·µL-1 (1-822); 48 patients (80%) were virologically controlled. Four-cycle inductions were achieved by 38 patients (62%), and 31 (51%) started P maintenance [median of 4.1 cycles (range: 1-19)]. The 12-week DCR was 50.8% (95%CI: 38.3;63.4) and partial response rate 21.3%. Median PFS and OS were respectively 3.5 (95%CI: 2.7;4.4) and 7.6 months (5.7;12.8). Patients with PS 0-1 had the longest median PFS (4.3 months, 95%CI: 3.1;5.2) and OS (11.9 months, 95%CI: 6.4;14.3). During induction, CaP doublet was well tolerated apart from grade 3-4 hematologic toxicities (neutropenia, 53.8%; thrombocytopenia, 35.0%; anemia, 30.0%). Two fatal treatment-related sepsis were reported. No opportunistic infections were experienced.In PLHIV with advanced NS-NSCLC, first-line 4-cycle CaP induction followed by P maintenance was effective and reasonably well-tolerated. Further studies should evaluate combination strategies of CaP with immunotherapy in PLHIV.

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