eHealth technologies for screening, diagnosis and management of viral hepatitis: A systematic review.

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Chronic viral hepatitis is a leading cause of worldwide liver-related morbidity and mortality, despite the availability of effective treatments that reduce or prevent complications in most patients. Electronic-health (eHealth) technologies have potential to intervene along the whole cascade of care. We aimed to summarize available literature on eHealth interventions with respect to conventional screening, diagnostic and treatment outcomes in chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) METHODS: We systematically reviewed MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and international conference abstracts, including studies published from 2009 - 2020. Overall 80 studies were included, covering electronic medical record (EMR) interventions (n=39), telemedicine (n=20), mHealth (n=5), devices (n=4), clinical decision support (n=3), web-based (n=5), social media (n=1) and electronic communication (n=3).Compared to standard care, EMR alerts increase screening rates in eligible populations including birth cohort screening in HCV, universal HCV screening in Emergency Departments, ethnic groups with high HBV prevalence, and HBV screening prior to immunosuppression. Direct messaging alerts to providers and automated testing may have a greater effect. No significant difference was found in sustained virological response outcomes between telemedicine and face-to-face management for community, rural and prison cohorts in HCV in the direct acting antiviral era of treatment, with higher patient satisfaction in telemedicine groups.EMR alerts significantly increases screening rates in eligible cohorts in both chronic HBV and HCV. Telemedicine is equally efficacious to face-to-face care in HCV treatment. Other eHealth technologies show promise however rigorous studies are lacking.


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