Effect of Multilevel Upper Airway Surgery vs Medical Management on the Apnea-Hypopnea Index and Patient-Reported Daytime Sleepiness Among Patients With Moderate or Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea: The SAMS Randomized Clinical Trial.

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Many adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) use device treatments inadequately and remain untreated.To determine whether combined palatal and tongue surgery to enlarge or stabilize the upper airway is an effective treatment for patients with OSA when conventional device treatment failed.Multicenter, parallel-group, open-label randomized clinical trial of upper airway surgery vs ongoing medical management. Adults with symptomatic moderate or severe OSA in whom conventional treatments had failed were enrolled from August 2014 to November 2017, with follow-up until August 2018.Multilevel surgery (modified uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and minimally invasive tongue volume reduction; n = 51) or ongoing medical management (eg, advice on sleep positioning, weight loss; n = 51).Primary outcome measures were the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI; ie, the number of apnea and hypopnea events/h; 15-30 indicates moderate and >30 indicates severe OSA) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS; range, 0-24; >10 indicates pathological sleepiness). Baseline-adjusted differences between groups at 6 months were assessed. Minimal clinically important differences are 15 events per hour for AHI and 2 units for ESS.Among 102 participants who were randomized (mean [SD] age, 44.6 [12.8] years; 18 [18%] women), 91 (89%) completed the trial. The mean AHI was 47.9 at baseline and 20.8 at 6 months for the surgery group and 45.3 at baseline and 34.5 at 6 months for the medical management group (mean baseline-adjusted between-group difference at 6 mo, -17.6 events/h [95% CI, -26.8 to -8.4]; P 

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