Early brain biomarkers of post-traumatic seizures: initial report of the multicentre epilepsy bioinformatics study for antiepileptogenic therapy (EpiBioS4Rx) prospective study.

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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes early seizures and is the leading cause of post-traumatic epilepsy. We prospectively assessed structural imaging biomarkers differentiating patients who develop seizures secondary to TBI from patients who do not.Multicentre prospective cohort study starting in 2018. Imaging data are acquired around day 14 post-injury, detection of seizure events occurred early (within 1 week) and late (up to 90 days post-TBI).From a sample of 96 patients surviving moderate-to-severe TBI, we performed shape analysis of local volume deficits in subcortical areas (analysable sample: 57 patients; 35 no seizure, 14 early, 8 late) and cortical ribbon thinning (analysable sample: 46 patients; 29 no seizure, 10 early, 7 late). Right hippocampal volume deficit and inferior temporal cortex thinning demonstrated a significant effect across groups. Additionally, the degree of left frontal and temporal pole thinning, and clinical score at the time of the MRI, could differentiate patients experiencing early seizures from patients not experiencing them with 89% accuracy.Although this is an initial report, these data show that specific areas of localised volume deficit, as visible on routine imaging data, are associated with the emergence of seizures after TBI.

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