Differentiating dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease dementia: an update on imaging modalities.

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Dementia with Lewy bodies is the second most common cause of neurodegenerative dementia after Alzheimer's disease. Dementia with Lewy bodies can provide a diagnostic challenge due to the frequent overlap of clinical signs with other neurodegenerative conditions, namely Parkinson's disease dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. Part of this clinical overlap is due to the neuropathological overlap. Dementia with Lewy bodies is characterized by the accumulation of aggregated α-synuclein protein in Lewy bodies, similar to Parkinson's disease and Parkinson's disease dementia. However, it is also frequently accompanied by aggregation of amyloid-beta and tau, the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Neuroimaging is central to the diagnostic process. This review is an overview of both established and evolving imaging methods that can improve diagnostic accuracy and improve management of this disorder.

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