Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein immunoglobulin G associated optic neuritis (MOG-ON) is a recently described entity. Recent studies have shown that MOG-ON has a more severe clinical presentation than classic optic neuritis (ON).This study aimed to define morphological characteristics of MOG-ON, correlate these with clinical characteristics and compare them with multiple sclerosis associated ON (MS-ON) and healthy controls (CTRL).In a retrospective study, we included MOG-ON and MS-ON patients seen between 2011 and 2018 at the University Hospital Bern. Data from clinical examination, perimetry, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were analyzed.A total of 66 eyes of 43 patients were included; 22 MS-ON and 33 CTRL eyes were sex- and age-matched to 11 MOG-ON eyes. We found significantly worse visual acuity at nadir, but better recovery and thinner global peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in MOG-ON patients compared to MS-ON patients. Both groups exhibited irregular thinning of the macular ganglion cell layer. Furthermore, the visual acuity and visual field parameters correlated to retinal layer thickness only in MOG-ON eyes.In comparison to MS-ON, MOG-ON is associated with more prominent acute vision loss and more pronounced global thinning of the pRNFL. Both entities result in similar final visual acuity and atrophy of the macular ganglion cell layer.