Studies have shown a disparate association between body composition and the risk of type 2 diabetes. We assessed whether associations between differences in body composition and type 2 diabetes vary among ethnic groups with disparate cardiometabolic risk.We used data from the Healthy Life in an Urban Setting (HELIUS) study, including individuals aged 18-70 of African Surinamese (n = 3,997), South Asian Surinamese (n = 2,956), Turkish (n = 3,546), Moroccan (n = 3,850), Ghanaian (n = 2,271), and Dutch (n = 4,452) origin living in Amsterdam. Type 2 diabetes was defined using the World Health Organization criteria. Logistic regression was used to assess the relation between body composition and type 2 diabetes. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference, BMI, and body fat percentage by bioelectrical impedance were used to estimate body composition.Per unit change in BMI, only Ghanaian (odds ratio [OR] 0.94 [95% CI 0.89-0.99]) and Moroccan (0.94 [0.89-0.99]) women had a smaller increase in type 2 diabetes compared with the Dutch population, whereas the ORs for body fat percentage were 0.94 (0.89-1.00) for Ghanaian, 0.93 (0.88-0.99) for Moroccan, and 0.95 (0.90-1.00) for South Asian Surinamese women. There was no interaction between WHR and ethnicity on the risk of type 2 diabetes, and there were no differences in men. WHR had the highest precision in predicting type 2 diabetes in both men (C statistic = 0.78) and women (C statistic = 0.81).The association between differences in body composition and type 2 diabetes is roughly the same in all ethnic groups. WHR seems the most reliable and consistent predictor of type 2 diabetes regardless of ethnic background.
Marleen Zethof, Charlotte M Mosterd, Didier Collard, Henrike Galenkamp, Charles Agyemang, Max Nieuwdorp, Daniël H van Raalte, Bert-Jan H van den Born