Diabetes in chronic pancreatitis: risk factors and natural history.

The purpose of this review is to delineate risk factors for the development of diabetes in patients with chronic pancreatitis. The natural history including progression to diabetes and complications that develop once diabetes occurs in chronic pancreatitis is also reviewed.Studies have found that predictors of diabetes in chronic pancreatitis include both risk factors for type 2 diabetes (e.g., obesity, genetic variants) as well as pancreas-specific factors (e.g., pancreatic calcification, exocrine insufficiency). Rates of diabetes in chronic pancreatitis are strongly related to the duration of chronic pancreatitis, reflecting progressive dysfunction and damage to the insulin-secreting beta cells. Patients with diabetes and chronic pancreatitis experience an excess burden of complications, including higher all-cause and cancer-related mortality.The high incidence and significant impact of diabetes on the morbidity and mortality of patients with chronic pancreatitis highlights the urgent need for clinically applicable models to predict diabetes in those with chronic pancreatitis, allowing efforts for targeted interventions to prevent diabetes. Research being carried out in the Consortium for the Study of Chronic Pancreatitis, Diabetes, and Pancreatic Cancer holds promise to fulfill these goals.

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Authors: Mark O Goodarzi, Maxim S Petrov, Dana K Andersen, Phil A Hart