Development of CAR T-cell lymphoma in two of ten patients effectively treated with piggyBac modified CD19 CAR T-cells.

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CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR19) T-cells effectively induce remission of B-cell malignancy, but the cost and complexity of production using viral vectors is a factor limiting widespread application. Furthermore, the small cargo capacity of viral vectors may hamper future development of more heavily engineered CAR T-cells. We demonstrated the feasibility of generating CAR19 T-cells from HLA-matched donors of sibling allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients via a simple and inexpensive method using the high-capacity piggyBac transposon. A cohort of 10 patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia or aggressive lymphoma following HSCT were the first human subjects to receive piggyBac-generated CAR19 T-cells. Treatment with intra-patient escalating doses of CAR19 T-cells was effective, with all 9 evaluable patients achieving complete remission. At a median follow-up of 18.0 months, 5 patients remained in complete remission of B-cell malignancy. One patient died of viral sepsis. Four patients developed cytokine release syndrome of maximum grade 2, and no neurotoxicity or new graft-versus-host disease occurred. However, two patients developed malignant CAR19 T-cell tumors, one of whom was successfully treated; one patient died of the secondary tumor. The piggyBac system represents a feasible alternative to viral vectors for the generation of effective CAR19 T-cells, but its oncogenic potential in the context of the described production process will need to be addressed before any further clinical use is possible. This trial was registered at as ACTRN12617001579381.

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Authors: David C Bishop, Leighton E Clancy, Renee Simms, Jane Burgess, Geetha Mathew, Leili Moezzi, Janine A Street, Gaurav Sutrave, Elissa Atkins, Helen M McGuire, Brian S Gloss, Koon Lee, Wei Jiang, Karen Maddock, Georgia Jane McCaughan, Selmir Avdic, Vicki Antonenas, Tracey O'Brien, Peter J Shaw, David J Gottlieb, Emily Blyth, David O Irving, Kenneth Paul Micklethwaite


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