We aimed to develop a deep-learning algorithm detecting 10 common abnormalities (DLAD-10) on chest radiographs and to evaluate its impact in diagnostic accuracy, timeliness of reporting, and workflow efficacy.
DLAD-10 was trained with 146 717 radiographs from 108 053 patients using a ResNet34-based neural network with lesion-specific channels for 10 common radiologic abnormalities (pneumothorax, mediastinal widening, pneumoperitoneum, nodule/mass, consolidation, pleural effusion, linear atelectasis, fibrosis, calcification, and cardiomegaly). For external validation, the performance of DLAD-10 on a same-day CT-confirmed dataset (normal:abnormal, 53:147) and an open-source dataset (PadChest; normal:abnormal, 339:334) was compared to that of three radiologists. Separate simulated reading tests were conducted on another dataset adjusted to real-world disease prevalence in the emergency department, consisting of four critical, 52 urgent, and 146 non-urgent cases. Six radiologists participated in the simulated reading sessions with and without DLAD-10.
DLAD-10 exhibited areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUROCs) of 0.895–1.00 in the CT-confirmed dataset and 0.913–0.997 in the PadChest dataset. DLAD-10 correctly classified significantly more critical abnormalities (95.0% [57/60]) than pooled radiologists (84.4% [152/180]; p=0.01). In simulated reading tests for emergency department patients, pooled readers detected significantly more critical (70.8% [17/24] versus 29.2% [7/24]; p=0.006) and urgent (82.7% [258/312] versus 78.2% [244/312]; p=0.04) abnormalities when aided by DLAD-10. DLAD-10 assistance shortened the mean time-to-report critical and urgent radiographs (640.5±466.3 versus 3371.0±1352.5 s and 1840.3±1141.1 versus 2127.1±1468.2, respectively; p-values<0.01) and reduced the mean interpretation time (20.5±22.8 versus 23.5±23.7 s; p<0.001).
DLAD-10 showed excellent performance, improving radiologists' performance and shortening the reporting time for critical and urgent cases.