Decreased inflammatory cytokine production of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in NMDA receptor encephalitis.

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Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is the most common autoimmune encephalitis with psychosis, amnesia, seizures and dyskinesias. The disease is mediated by pathogenic autoantibodies against the NR1 subunit that disrupt NMDAR function. Antibody infusion into mouse brains can recapitulate encephalitis symptoms, while active immunization resulted also in strong T cell infiltration into the hippocampus. However, whether T cells react against NMDAR and their specific contribution to disease development are poorly understood. Here we characterized the ex vivo frequency and phenotype of circulating CD4+ T helper (TH) cells reactive to NR1 protein using antigen-reactive T cell enrichment (ARTE) in 24 patients with NMDAR encephalitis, 13 patients with LGI1 encephalitis and 51 matched controls. Unexpectedly, patients with NMDAR encephalitis had lower frequencies of CD154-expressing NR1-reactive TH cells than healthy controls and produced significantly less inflammatory cytokines. No difference was seen in T cells reactive to the synaptic target LGI1 (Leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1), ubiquitous Candida antigens or neoantigens, suggesting that the findings are disease-specific and not related to therapeutic immunosuppression. Also, patients with LGI1 encephalitis showed unaltered numbers of LGI1 antigen-reactive T cells. The data reveal disease-specific functional alterations of circulating NMDAR-reactive TH cells in patients with NMDAR encephalitis and challenge the idea that increased pro-inflammatory NMDAR-reactive T cells contribute to disease pathogenesis.

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