DANGER SIGNALS IN LIVER INJURY AND RESTORATION OF HOMEOSTASIS.

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Damage-associated molecular patterns are signaling molecules involved in inflammatory responses and restoration of homeostasis. Chronic release of these molecules can also promote inflammation, including in the context of liver disease. This comprehensive summary describes the role of damage-associated molecular patterns as danger signals in liver injury. We consider the role of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species as inducers of damage-associated molecular patterns, as well as how specific damage-associated molecular patterns participate in pathogenesis of chronic liver diseases such as alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis and liver cancer. In addition, we discuss the role of damage-associated molecular patterns in ischemia reperfusion injury and liver transplantation and highlight current studies in which blockade of specific damage-associated molecular patterns has proven beneficial in humans or mice.


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