Cost and Cost-Effectiveness of Large-Scale Screening for Type 1 Diabetes in Colorado.

To assess the costs and project the potential lifetime cost-effectiveness of the ongoing Autoimmunity Screening for Kids (ASK) program, a large-scale, presymptomatic type 1 diabetes screening program for children and adolescents in the metropolitan Denver region.We report the resource utilization, costs, and effectiveness measures from the ongoing ASK program compared with usual care (i.e., no screening). Additionally, we report a practical screening scenario by including utilization and costs relevant to routine screening in clinical practice. Finally, we project the potential cost-effectiveness of ASK and routine screening by identifying clinical benchmarks (i.e., diabetic ketoacidosis [DKA] events avoided, HbA1c improvements vs. no screening) needed to meet value thresholds of $50,000-$150,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained over a lifetime horizon.Cost per case detected was $4,700 for ASK screening and $14,000 for routine screening. To achieve value thresholds of $50,000-$150,000 per QALY gained, screening costs would need to be offset by cost savings through 20% reductions in DKA events at diagnosis in addition to 0.1% (1.1 mmol/mol) improvements in HbA1c over a lifetime compared with no screening for patients who develop type 1 diabetes. Value thresholds were not met from avoiding DKA events alone in either scenario.Presymptomatic type 1 diabetes screening may be cost-effective in areas with a high prevalence of DKA and an infrastructure facilitating screening and monitoring if the benefits of avoiding DKA events and improved HbA1c persist over long-run time horizons. As more data are collected from ASK, the model will be updated with direct evidence on screening effects.

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