Coronary flow velocity reserve predicts adverse prognosis in women with angina and no obstructive coronary artery disease: results from the iPOWER study.

Many patients with angina, especially women, do not have obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) yet have impaired prognosis. We investigated whether routine assessment of coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) is feasible and predicts adverse outcome in women with angina and no obstructive CAD.After screening 7253, we included 1853 women with angina and no obstructive CAD on angiogram who were free of previous CAD, heart failure, or valvular heart disease in the prospective iPOWER (Improving Diagnosis and Treatment of Women with Angina Pectoris and Microvascular Disease) study. CMD was assessed by Doppler echocardiography in the left anterior descending artery as coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR). Patients were followed for a composite outcome of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure, stroke, and coronary revascularization. CFVR was obtained in 1681 patients (91%) and the median CFVR was 2.33 (quartiles 1-3: 2.00-2.74). During a median follow-up of 4.5 years, 96 events occurred. In univariate Cox regression, CFVR was associated with the composite outcome {hazard ratio (HR) 1.07 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.11] per 0.1 unit decrease in CFVR; P 


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