Comparison of total body irradiation versus non- total body irradiation containing regimens for de novo acute myeloid leukemia in children.

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With limited data comparing hematopoietic cell transplant outcomes between myeloablative total body irradiation (TBI) containing and non-TBI regimens in children with de novo acute myeloid leukemia, the aim of this study was to compare transplant-outcomes between these regimens. Cox regression models were used to compare transplant-outcomes after TBI and non-TBI regimens in 624 children transplanted between 2008 and 2016. Thirty two percent (n=199) received TBI regimens whereas 68% (n=425) received non-TBI regimens. Five-year non-relapse mortality was higher with TBI regimens (22% vs. 11%, p<0.0001) but relapse was lower (23% vs. 37%, p<0.0001) compared to non-TBI regimens. Consequently, overall (62% vs. 60%, p=1.00) and leukemia-free survival (55% vs. 52%, p=0.42) did not differ between treatment groups. Grade II-IV acute GVHD was higher with TBI regimens (56% vs. 27%, p<0.0001) but not chronic GVHD. The 3-year incidence of gonadal or growth hormone deficiency was higher with TBI regimens (24% vs. 8%, p<0.001) but there were no differences in late pulmonary, cardiac or renal impairment. In the absence of a survival advantage, the choice of TBI or non-TBI regimen merits careful consideration with the data favoring non-TBI regimens to limit the burden of morbidity associated with endocrine dysfunction.

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