Comparative Effectiveness and Safety of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors Versus Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Agonists in Older Adults.

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Both sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) demonstrated cardiovascular benefits in randomized controlled trials of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) generally <65 years old and mostly with cardiovascular disease. We aimed to evaluate the comparative effectiveness and safety of SGLT2i and GLP-1RA among real-world older adults.Using Medicare data (April 2013-December 2016), we identified 90,094 propensity score-matched (1:1) T2D patients ≥66 years old initiating SGLT2i or GLP-1RA. Primary outcomes were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (i.e., myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death) and hospitalization for heart failure (HHF). Other outcomes included diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), genital infections, fractures, lower-limb amputations (LLA), acute kidney injury (AKI), severe urinary tract infections, and overall mortality. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and rate differences (RDs) per 1,000 person-years, controlling for 140 baseline covariates.Compared with GLP-1RA, SGLT2i initiators had similar MACE risk (HR 0.98 [95% CI 0.87, 1.10]; RD -0.38 [95% CI -2.48, 1.72]) and reduced HHF risk (HR 0.68 [95% CI 0.57, 0.80]; RD -3.23 [95% CI -4.68, -1.77]), over a median follow-up of ∼6 months. They also had 0.7 more DKA events (RD 0.72 [95% CI 0.02, 1.41]), 0.9 more LLA (RD 0.90 [95% CI 0.10, 1.70]), 57.1 more genital infections (RD 57.08 [95% CI 53.45, 60.70]), and 7.1 fewer AKI events (RD -7.05 [95% CI -10.27, -3.83]) per 1,000 person-years.Among older adults, those taking SGLT2i had similar MACE risk, decreased HHF risk, and increased risk of DKA, LLA, and genital infections versus those taking GLP-1RA.


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