Comorbidities in ANCA-associated vasculitis.

The prognosis of patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis has improved over the past decades, but overall survival rates are still unsatisfactory. Recent research has focused on complications of immunosuppressive measures and comorbidities of ANCA-associated vasculitis. This review focuses on thromboembolic and cardiovascular events. A considerably increased risk of thromboembolic events has been reported, which is associated with active disease and impaired coagulation factors. There is mounting evidence that a hypercoagulable state is present even in patients in remission, and studies investigating the impact of tailored anticoagulation are needed to reduce the burden of thromboembolism. Cardiovascular mortality is one of the leading causes of death and accelerated atherosclerosis is frequently observed in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis. A high frequency of patients develops hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia, either as a consequence of immunosuppression or associated with the underlying disease. The current control of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors is insufficient and thorough reviews should be performed periodically. Treatment of these risk factors should be adopted according to current recommendations related to individual cardiovascular risk prediction.

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