Performing a cognitive task and a motor task simultaneously is an everyday act that can lead to decreased performance on both tasks.To provide insight into the neural correlates associated with cognitive-motor dual tasking in individuals with a neurologic disorder.We searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases for studies that had been published up to January 16th, 2019. Studies investigating the neural correlates of cognitive-motor dual task performance in individuals with a variety of neurologic disorders were included, independently from whether the study included healthy controls. Clinical and imaging data were abstracted for the comparison between single tasks and a dual task in the individuals with a neurologic disorder and for the comparison between the healthy controls and the individuals with a neurologic disorder.Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Study populations included individuals with Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis, mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer disease, traumatic brain injury, and stroke. Neuroimaging types used to study the neural correlates of cognitive-motor dual tasking during upper limb or gait tasks included fMRI, functional near-infrared spectroscopy, EEG, and PET.Despite large heterogeneity in study methodologies, some recurrent patterns were noted. Particularly, in neurologic patients, an already higher brain activation during single tasks was seen compared with healthy controls, perhaps compromising the patients' ability to further adapt brain activation with increasing load during dual tasking and resulting in reduced behavioral dual task performance.
Renee Veldkamp, Mieke Goetschalckx, Hanneke E Hulst, Alice Nieuwboer, Kathleen Grieten, Ilse Baert, Carmela Leone, Lousin Moumdjian, Peter Feys