Clinical spectrum, outcome and management of immune thrombocytopenia associated with myelodysplastic syndromes and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) are associated with systemic inflammatory or autoimmune diseases in 10-20 % of cases. Among them, immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) has been reported but large studies assessing this association are missing. Whether such patients have a particular phenotype and require particular management is unclear. This study analyzes the clinical spectrum, outcome and therapeutic management of patients with ITP associated with MDS or CMML, in comparison (i) to patients with primary ITP without MDS/CMML and (ii) to patients with MDS/CMML without ITP. Forty-one MDS/CMML-associated ITP patients were included, with chronic ITP in 26 (63%) patients, low-risk myelodysplasia in 30 (73%) patients and CMML in 24 (59%) patients. An associated autoimmune disease was noted in 10 (24%) patients. In comparison to primary ITP patients, MDS/CMML-associated ITP patients had a higher occurrence of severe bleeding despite similar platelet counts at diagnosis. First-line treatment consisted of glucocorticoids (98%) and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) (56%). Response achievement with IVIg was more frequent in primary ITP than in MDS/CMML-associated ITP patients. Response rates to second-line therapies were not statistically different between primary ITP and MDS/CMMLassociated ITP patients. Ten percent (n=4) of patients with MDS/CMML-associated ITP had multirefractory ITP versus none in primary ITP controls. After a median follow-up of 60 months, there was no difference in overall survival between MDS/CMML-associated ITP and primary ITP patients. Leukemia-free-survival was significantly better in MDS/CMMLassociated ITP patients than in MDS/CMML without ITP MDS/CMML-associated ITP have a particular outcome with more severe bleeding and multirefractory profile than primary ITP, similar response profile to primary ITP therapy except for IVIg, and less progression toward acute myeloid leukemia than MDS/CMML without ITP.

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Authors: Vincent Jachiet, Guillaume Moulis, Jérome Hadjadj, Julie Seguier, Kamel Laribi, Nicolas Schleinitz, Norbert Vey, Karim Sacre, Bertrand Godeau, Odile Beyne-Rauzy, Romain Bouvet, Jonathan Broner, Natacha Brun, Thibault Comont, Clément Gaudin, Olivier Lambotte, Lenaïg Le Clech, Pierre Peterlin, Frédérique Roy-Peaud, Clémentine Salvado, Mathilde Versini, Françoise Isnard, Jean Emmanuel Kahn, Delphine Gobert, Lionel Adès, Pierre Fenaux, Olivier Fain, Arsène Mekinian