Childhood-onset hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is far less common than adult-onset disease, thus natural history is not well characterized. We aim to describe the characteristics and outcomes of childhood-onset HCM.We performed an observational cohort study of 7677 HCM patients from the Sarcomeric Human Cardiomyopathy Registry (SHaRe). Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients were stratified by age at diagnosis [<1 year (infancy), 1-18 years (childhood), >18 years (adulthood)] and assessed for composite endpoints reflecting heart failure (HF), life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation (AF), and an overall composite that also included stroke and death. Stratifying by age of diagnosis, 184 (2.4%) patients were diagnosed in infancy; 1128 (14.7%) in childhood; and 6365 (82.9%) in adulthood. Childhood-onset HCM patients had an ∼2%/year event rate for the overall composite endpoint, with ventricular arrhythmias representing the most common event in the 1st decade following baseline visit, but HF and AF becoming more common by the end of the 2nd decade. Sarcomeric variants were more common in childhood-onset HCM (63%) and carried a worse prognosis than non-sarcomeric disease, including a greater than two-fold increased risk of HF [HRadj 2.39 (1.36-4.20), P = 0.003] and 67% increased risk of the overall composite outcome [HRadj 1.67 (1.16-2.41), P = 0.006]. When compared with adult-onset HCM, childhood-onset was 36% more likely to develop life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias [HRadj 1.36 (1.03-1.80)] and twice as likely to require transplant or ventricular assist device [HRadj 1.99 (1.23-3.23)].Patients with childhood-onset HCM are more likely to have sarcomeric disease, carry a higher risk of life-threatening ventricular arrythmias, and have greater need for advanced HF therapies. These findings provide insight into the natural history of disease and can help inform clinical risk stratification.
Nicholas A Marston, Larry Han, Iacopo Olivotto, Sharlene M Day, Euan A Ashley, Michelle Michels, Alexandre C Pereira, Jodie Ingles, Christopher Semsarian, Daniel Jacoby, Steven D Colan, Joseph W Rossano, Samuel G Wittekind, James S Ware, Sara Saberi, Adam S Helms, Carolyn Y Ho