Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is associated with a poor outcome in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Two recent studies of percutaneous mitral valvular repair therapy reported disparate results, likely due in part to variable risk among FMR patients. The aim of this study is to define echocardiographic factors of prognostic significance in FMR patients, and particularly to compare ischemic and nonischemic FMR. We followed three hundred sixteen consecutive patients (age 60 ± 14 years, men 70%) with FMR and LVEF ≤ 35% between January 2010 and December 2015 (mean follow-up 3.7 years). Patients were categorized into ischemic (39.6%) and nonischemic (60.4%). MR was graded according to the American Society of Echocardiography guidelines. Although echo findings were similar between ischemic and nonischemic patient, the incidence of death, heart transplantation (HT), or LVAD implantation was higher in ischemic than in nonischemic patients (Log rank p = 0.001). In age and gender adjusted multivariate (11 variables) Cox regression analysis, left atrium volume index (LAVI) was associated with death, HT, or LVAD with hazard ratio of 2.1 for patients with FMR (p = 0.003). LAVI greater than 48.7 mL/m2 predicts adverse outcome in both nonischemic and ischemic FMR (AUC 0.62, p < 0.001). Combined ischemic FMR with LAVI ≥ 48.7 mL/m2 had the highest incident rate of all groups. In conclusion, despite similar LV function and MR severity, ischemic FMR patients had higher mortality than nonischemic patients. Of all echocardiographic parameters, an LAVI ≥ 48.7 mL/m2 predicted adverse clinical outcome.
Sachiyo Igata, Bruno R Cotter, Calvin T Hang, Monet Strachan, Ajit Raisinghani, Daniel G Blanchard, Anthony N DeMaria