Bi-allelic CEBPA mutations are associated with favorable outcomes in AML. We evaluated the clinical and biologic implications of CEBPA-bZip mutations in childhood/young adult newly diagnosed AML. CEBPA-bZip mutation status was determined in 2,958 AML patients enrolled on COG trials (NCT00003790, NCT0007174, NCT00372593, NCT01379181). Next generation sequencing (NGS) was performed in 1,863 patients, 107 with CEBPA mutations, to characterize the co-occurring mutations. CEBPA mutational status was correlated with disease characteristics and clinical outcomes. CEBPA-bZip mutations were identified in 160/2958 (5.4%) patients, with 132 (82.5%) harboring a second CEBPA mutation (CEBPA-dm) and 28 (17.5%) with a single CEBPA-bZip only. The clinical and laboratory features of the two CEBPA cohorts were very similar. CEBPA-dm and CEBPA-bZip patients experienced identical event-free survival (EFS) of 64% and similar overall survival (OS) of 81% and 89%, respectively (p=0.259); this compared favorably to EFS and OS in CEBPA wild type (CEBPA-WT) of 46% and 61%, respectively (both p<0.001). Transcriptome analysis demonstrated similar expression profiles for CEBPA-bZip and CEBPA-dm cases. Comprehensive NGS of CEBPA-mutant cases identified co-occurring CSF3R and GATA2 mutations in 13.1% and 21.5% of patients, respectively. Patients with dual CEBPA/CSF3R mutations had an EFS of 17% vs. 63% for CEBPA-mutant/CSF3R-WT (p<0.001) with a corresponding relapse rate (RR) of 83% vs. 22%, respectively (p<0.001); GATA2 co-occurrence did not impact outcome. CEBPA bZip domain mutations are associated with favorable clinical outcomes, regardless of mono or bi-allelic status. Co-occurring CSF3R and CEBPA mutations are associated with a high RR and nullifies the favorable prognostic impact of CEBPA mutations.
Katherine Tarlock, Adam Lamble, Jim Wang, Robert B Gerbing, Rhonda E Ries, Michael R Loken, Lisa Eidenschink Brodersen, Laura Pardo, Amanda R Leonti, Jenny Smith, Tiffany Hylkema, William Guard Woods, Todd Cooper, E Anders Kolb, Alan S Gamis, Richard Aplenc, Todd Alonzo, Soheil Meshinchi