Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Concurrent Heart Failure.

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Due to limited real-world data, the aim of this study was to explore the impact of catheter ablation (CA) for atrial fibrillation (AF) in heart failure (HF). This retrospective cohort study identified 119,694 patients with AF and HF from the Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD) from 2016-2017. Propensity-matching was generated using demographics, comorbidities, hospital and other characteristics through multivariate logistic regression. Greedy's propensity score match (1:15) algorithm was used to create matched data. The primary endpoint was a composite of HF readmission and mortality at one year. Secondary outcomes include HF readmission, mortality, AF readmission, and any-cause readmission at one year. Of the 119,694 patients, 63,299 had heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), and 56,395 had heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). In the overall HFrEF cohort, the primary outcome was similar (HR, 95% CI, p-value) (1.01, 0.91-1.13, 0.811). AF readmission (0.41, 0.33-0.49, <0.001) and any readmission (0.87, 0.82-0.93, <0.001) were reduced with CA. In the propensity-matched HFrEF cohort, results were unchanged (primary outcome- 1.10, 0.95-1.27, 0.189; AF readmission- 0.46, 0.36-0.59, <0.001; any readmission- 0.89, 0.82-0.98, 0.015). In the overall HFpEF cohort, the primary outcome was similar (0.90, 0.78-1.04, 0.154). AF readmission was reduced with CA (0.54, 0.44-0.65, <0.001). In the propensity-matched HFpEF cohort, results were unchanged (primary outcome 1.10, 0.92-1.31, 0.289; AF readmission 0.44, 0.33-0.57, <0.001). CA did not reduce mortality and HF readmission at one year irrespective of the type of HF, but significantly reduce readmission due to AF.

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