C-Peptide Levels in Subjects Followed Longitudinally Before and After Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosis in TrialNet.

Insulin secretion declines rapidly after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, followed by a slower rate of change. Previous studies have demonstrated that the C-peptide decline begins before the clinical diagnosis. Changes in insulin secretion in the same individuals studied from preclinical stages through and after clinical diagnosis have not been previously reported.Antibody-positive relatives undergo sequential oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) as part of TrialNet's Pathway to Prevention study and continue both OGTT and mixed-meal tolerance testing (MMTT) as part of TrialNet's Long Term Investigational Follow-up study if they develop type 1 diabetes. We analyzed glucose and C-peptide data obtained from 80 TrialNet subjects who had OGTT before and after clinical diagnosis. Separately, we compared C-peptide response to OGTT and MMTT in 127 participants after diagnosis.C-peptide did not change significantly until 6 months before the clinical diagnosis of type 1 diabetes and continued to decline postdiagnosis, and the rates of decline for the first 6 months postdiagnosis were similar to the 6 months prediagnosis. There were no significant differences in MMTT and OGTT C-peptide responses in paired tests postdiagnosis.This is the first analysis of C-peptide levels in longitudinally monitored patients with type 1 diabetes studied from before diagnosis and continuing to the postdiagnosis period. These data highlight the discordant timing between accelerated β-cell dysfunction and the current glucose thresholds for clinical diagnosis. To preserve β-cell function, disease-modifying therapy should start at or before the acute decline in C-peptide.

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