Biphasic dynamics of beta cell mass in a mouse model of congenital hyperinsulinism: implications for type 2 diabetes.

Acute hyperglycaemia stimulates pancreatic beta cell proliferation in the mouse whereas chronic hyperglycaemia appears to be toxic. We hypothesise that this toxic effect is mediated by increased beta cell workload, unrelated to hyperglycaemia per se.To test this hypothesis, we developed a novel mouse model of cell-autonomous increased beta cell glycolytic flux caused by a conditional heterozygous beta cell-specific mutation that activates glucokinase (GCK), mimicking key aspects of the rare human genetic disease GCK-congenital hyperinsulinism.In the mutant mice, we observed random and fasting hypoglycaemia (random 4.5-5.4 mmol/l and fasting 3.6 mmol/l) that persisted for 15 months. GCK activation led to increased beta cell proliferation as measured by Ki67 expression (2.7% vs 1.5%, mutant and wild-type (WT), respectively, p 

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