While the contribution of B-cells to SLE is well established, its role in chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CCLE) remains unclear. Here, we compare B-cell and serum auto-antibody profiles between patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), CCLE, and overlap conditions.B-cells were compared by flow cytometry amongst healthy controls, CCLE without systemic lupus (CCLE+/SLE-) and SLE patients with (SLE+/CCLE+) or without CCLE (SLE+/CCLE-). Serum was analyed for autoreactive 9G4+, anti-double-stranded DNA, anti-chromatin and anti-RNA antibodies by ELISA and for anti-RNA binding proteins (RBP) by luciferase immunoprecipitation.Patients with CCLE+/SLE- share B-cell abnormalities with SLE including decreased unswitched memory and increased effector B-cells albeit at a lower level than SLE patients. Similarly, both SLE and CCLE+/SLE- patients have elevated 9G4+ IgG autoantibodies despite lower levels of anti-nucleic acid and anti-RBP antibodies in CCLE+/SLE-. CCLE+/SLE- patients could be stratified into those with SLE-like B-cell profiles and a separate group with normal B-cell profiles. The former group was more serologically active and more likely to have disseminated skin lesions.CCLE displays perturbations in B-cell homeostasis and partial B-cell tolerance breakdown. Our study demonstrates that this entity is immunologically heterogeneous and includes a disease segment whose B-cell compartment resembles SLE and is clinically associated with enhanced serological activity and more extensive skin disease. This picture suggests that SLE-like B-cell changes in primary CCLE may help identify patients at risk for subsequent development of SLE. B-cell profiling in CCLE might also indentify candidates who would benefit from B-cell targeted therapies.
Scott A Jenks, Chungwen Wei, Regina Bugrovsky, Aisha Hill, Xiaoqian Wang, Francesca M Rossi, Kevin Cashman, Matthew C Woodruff, Laura D Aspey, S Sam Lim, Gaobin Bao, Cristina Drenkard, Ignacio Sanz