Associations among adipose tissue immunology, inflammation and exosomes and insulin sensitivity in people with obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Insulin resistance is a key factor in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. We evaluated the importance of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) inflammation and both plasma and SAAT-derived exosomes in regulating insulin sensitivity in people with obesity and NAFLD.Adipose tissue inflammation (macrophage and T cell content and expression of proinflammatory cytokines), liver and whole-body insulin sensitivity (assessed by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and glucose tracer infusion), and 24-hour serial plasma cytokine concentrations were evaluated in three groups stratified by adiposity and intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content: 1) lean with normal IHTG content (LEAN; n=14); 2) obese with normal IHTG content (OB-NL; n=28); and 3) obese with NAFLD (OB-NAFLD; n=28). The effect of plasma and SAAT-derived exosomes on insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle myotubes and mouse primary hepatocytes was assessed in a subset of participants.Proinflammatory macrophages, proinflammatory CD4 and CD8 T cell populations, and gene expression of several cytokines in SAAT were greater in the OB-NAFLD than the OB-NL and LEAN groups. However, with the exception of PAI-1, which was greater in the OB-NAFLD than the LEAN and OB-NL groups, 24-hour plasma cytokine concentration areas-under-the-curve (AUCs) were not different between groups. The percentage of proinflammatory macrophages and plasma PAI-1 concentration AUC were inversely correlated with both hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity. Compared with exosomes from OB-NL participants, plasma and SAAT-derived exosomes from the OB-NAFLD group decreased insulin signaling in myotubes and hepatocytes.Systemic insulin resistance in people with obesity and NAFLD is associated with increased plasma PAI-1 concentrations and both plasma and SAAT-derived exosomes. number: NCT02706262.

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Authors: Anja Fuchs, Dmitri Samovski, Gordon I Smith, Vincenza Cifarelli, Sarah S Farabi, Jun Yoshino, Terri Pietka, Shin-Wen Chang, Sarbani Ghosh, Terence M Myckatyn, Samuel Klein