A unique clinical circumstance involving middle-aged male identical twins with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) is reported. The concordance of morphologic (i.e., phenotype) findings and clinical course between the 2 patients is remarkable, including timing of the onset and progression of heart failure due to left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, frequency of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and beneficial response to surgical myectomy and Cox-Maze IV procedure (performed 14 days apart). Histopathology of resected ventricular septal muscle showed identical hallmarks of HC including myocyte disorganization, small vessel disease, and myocardial fibrosis. A missense variant of the CRYAB gene was identified as potentially relevant to the pathogenesis of HC in the twins. Taken together, these observations support a powerful genetic determinant for the morphologic and clinical expression of HC, with little or no environmental influence.