Case reports and small case series suggest that stenotic lesions of the renal, coeliac and mesenteric arteries may occur in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) resulting in clinical consequences such as hypertension and abdominal angina.To determine the prevalence of stenotic lesions in arteries arising from the middle aorta in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) compared with healthy, hypertensive and atherosclerotic controls.In a cross-sectional comparative radiological study using magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) we assessed 5 groups of subjects for the prevalence of stenotic lesions in arteries arising from the middle aorta: APS/aPL positive, healthy renal donors, patients with hypertension, patients with atherosclerosis defined radiologically and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and vasculitis who were negative for aPL. All subjects underwent MRA in suspended respiration and images were assessed by 2 senior radiologists blinded to the clinical details.In the atherosclerosis group, vascular stenotic lesions were more prevalent (71%) than in any other group (p≤ 0.000002). The prevalence of all stenotic lesions in aPL positive patients (33%) was significantly higher than in the renal donors (18%) and hypertensive patients (19%) (p≤ 0.009). Renal artery stenosis was significantly more prevalent in aPL positive patients than in renal donors (p≤ 0.0006) but similar to the prevalence in hypertensive patients. Coeliac and/or mesenteric lesions were significantly more common in aPL positive patients vs hypertensive patients (p≤ 0.001). Stenoses did not correlate with traditional risk factors.Arterial stenotic lesions in arteries arising from the middle aorta were highly prevalent in atherosclerotic subjects and were more common in aPL positive patients than hypertensive patients and healthy renal donors.
Sangle Shirish, Jan Wajanat, Matar Hosam, Rankin Sheila, D'Cruz David