Given the importance of the period of life from 10 to 30 years in terms of cognitive development and education, combined with the high incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) during this period, and limited consensus as to the pattern and degree of cognitive impairment post TBI during this period, we conducted a systematic review to investigate cognitive performance across a range of domains among individuals between the ages of 10 and 30 years who had sustained a TBI. We searched five databases and identified 799 unique records; 52 met our inclusion criteria. These studies reported cognitive function for intelligence, attention, memory, processing speed, and executive function. The majority of the studies reported significant effects, suggesting that TBI is associated with cognitive impairments in these domains. Nine of the studies used physiological tests (EEG and fMRI), the outcomes of which supported behaviorally demonstrated cognitive deficits. In the studies we reviewed, individuals aged 10-30 years who had experienced a TBI performed worse than healthy controls on cognitive function measures-specifically for attention, memory, processing speed, and executive function. In the studies that subjected the individuals with TBI to EEG and fMRI, atypical activation in associated brain regions was demonstrated while the individuals were undergoing cognitive tasks. However, caution should be taken when interpreting the overall results due to the high risk of bias across the majority of the studies. The broader implications of reduced cognitive performance after TBI across this age range are yet to be fully understood.